With papal encouragement, Charles of Anjou
, younger brother of Louis IX of France (St Louis), took over the territories of southern Italy over which Frederick II had held sway, defeating the emperor's illegitimate son Manfred at the battle of Benevento in 1266 and his grandson Conradin at the battle of Tagliacozzo in 1268.
Michael's conquest of Constantinople stirred up hostility among his Latin neighbors, and at Lyons, he was seeking papal support to ward off attacks from the Italian Charles of Anjou
The central panel--which concentrates the reader's intellectual energies--offers a many-layered depiction of the social history of the Sicilian nobility in the period from the overthrow of Charles of Anjou
in 1282 down to 1392, when Sicily became a viceroyalty of the Crown of Aragon.
Charles of Anjou
was resident in 1268, returned during the residence of Gregory X in 1272-73 and again during the long stay of Martin IV in 1281-84.
The Norman conquest of the south was much more successftd than that of the French under Charles of Anjou
, but Charleg's incursion into southern Italy was arguably intended as a colonizing effort in Bartlett's sense of the term.