On the Catholic side of the events surrounding and including the massacre, the main actors were the Duke of Guise, who as scion of the house of Lorraine had claims to the French throne, and the French royal family: Charles ix
, the Duke of Anjou, who on Charles's death became Henri iii, and the Queen mother Catherine of Medici.
The history of April Fool's Day or All Fool's Day is uncertain, but the current thinking is that it began around 1582 in France with the reform of the calendar under Charles IX
It's been going since 1564 when France's Charles IX
brought in the new Gregorian calendar, changing new year from April 1 to January 1.
Her second son, aged ten, succeeded as King Charles IX
Later Dionisio reported that he also had the ear of King Charles IX
and his court, exhorting the king to lead the defense of Christian unity.
It began in 1564 when King Charles IX
decided to follow Pope Gregory's suggestion and begin the New Year with January and not April.
April Fools Day is believed to have started in 1564 when King Charles IX
of France adopted the Gregorian calendar, shifting New Year celebrations from April 1 to January 1.
His account of Andrea Amati ignores Laurence Witten's important article "The Surviving Instruments of Andrea Amati" (Early Music 19 : 487-94), and he accepts uncritically the traditional "fact" that Amati made a set of thirty-eight violins for Charles IX
of France (the earliest source for this information is Jean Benjamin de La Borde's Essai sur la musique ancienne et moderne [Paris, 1780]).
This grant was confirmed by Francois I in 1538, Charles IX
in 1566 and Louis XIII in 1629.
In France--where the turkey was, and is, called dinde because they believed it hailed from India--the bird was first served for the wedding feast of the young Charles IX
to Elizabeth of Austria.
After sketching the backdrop of plague, famine and institutional tensions that preceded the outbreak of civil unrest in sixteenth-century France, De Waele outlines the "revolts" that took place during the reigns of Charles IX
and Henri III, thus establishing the explosive terrain upon which Henri de Navarre would be called upon to maneuver.
These spectacles were part of a ten-day Carnival extravaganza designed to celebrate the reconciliation of warring factions following the first of the religious wars (1562-63) and to assert the authority of the thirteen-year-old king Charles IX
, whose majority had been declared six months earlier by the Parliament of Rouen and was about to be impressed upon the whole kingdom by means at' a two-year royal tour of more than a hundred cities of the realm (1564-66).
Most historians say the April Fool's Day tradition dates back to the 16th century in France, when King Charles IX
introduced the Gregorian Calendar and moved the New Year's Day celebration from April 1 to Jan.
Anjou, the future Henry III, was not the youngest son of Catherine de Medici, and the idea that his mother and his elder brother, Charles IX
, ordered the assassination of the Huguenot leader, Coligny, thereby triggering the massacre, has been discredited by modern scholarship.
King Charles IX
decreed that with the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, New Year's day which had previously started on March 25 with the exchange of gifts and ended with parties on April 1, should be moved to January 1.