Helping professionals indirectly exposed to trauma have reported symptoms such as intrusive secondary trauma-related thoughts or memories (flashbacks), avoidance behaviors, sleep disturbances, irritability, and dissociation (Bride, 2004; Dane & Chachkes, 2001; McCann & Pearlman, 1990).
Despite the potential negative consequences resulting from indirect trauma exposure, little research has been conducted in this area involving social workers generally (Bride, 2007) or hospital social workers specifically (Cunningham, 2003; Dane & Chachkes, 2001; Pockett, 2003).
These findings are consistent with those of a qualitative study that examined the impact of hospital work on social workers; the predominant themes that emerged from the data were occupational stress in the hospital environment (Dane & Chachkes, 2001) and "both the cognitive and emotional reactions that the work triggers" (pp.
Chachkes, Constitutionality of "No-Citation" Rules, 3 J.
2000) ("While our present circuit rules prohibit the citation of unpublished memorandum dispositions, [citation omitted] we are mindful of the fact that they are readily available in on line legal databases such as Westlaw and Lexis"); Katsh & Chachkes, supra n.