Pattern 7D shows Podocarpus, Ullmannia, Hirmeriella, Schizolepis, Pararaucaria, and Cephalotaxus each branching from an unresolved basal trichotomy of the Majonicaceae.
When Cephalotaxus is added to an exhaustive analysis of group 1 conifers, 61 equally parsimonious trees of 22 steps result.
It is 16 steps long and shows Araucaria, Cephalotaxus, and Podocarpus branching from within the Majonicaceae but Pinus diverging basal to this family.
Both Cupressus and Taxodium show a single shortest tree of 19 steps when analyzed with group 2 taxa [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 16 & 18 OMITTED], and both are linked as sister taxa with Cephalotaxus in their trees (((((Cupressus or Taxodium, Cephalotaxus)((Dolmitia, Pseudovoltzia) Araucaria) Majonica, Podocarpus) Pinus) outgroup).
The ten remaining genera of ancient conifers representing the Cheirolepidiaceae, Ullmanniaceae, and Voltziaceae (Mapes & Rothwell, 1991; Miller, 1977) were analyzed first with group 1, consisting of the Majonicaceae, Taxodiaceae, Sciadopityaceae, and Cupressaceae, using Ernestiodendron as the outgroup, and then with group 2, consisting of the Majonicaceae plus Pinus, Araucaria, Podocarpus, and Cephalotaxus, using both Ernestiodendron and Moyliostrobus as the outgroup.
The strict consensus tree ((Aethophyllum, Pseudovoltzia, Dolmitia) Pinus, Podocarpus, Cephalotaxus, Majonica) outgroup) shows Aethophyllum on an unresolved trichotomy with Pseudovoltzia and Dolmitia.
Alternative positions have to do with how Dolmitia, Psuedovoltzia, Araucaria, and Cephalotaxus assort on their subclade.
One of the equally parsimonious trees has the Cephalotaxus subclade of the strict consensus sharing a node with Pararaucaria; one is like the strict consensus; and in the third Cephalotaxus, Pararaucaria, and the Araucaria subclade of the strict consensus branch from an unresolved trichotomy.
Amentotaxus has been allied with Cephalotaxus as a member of the Cephalotaxaceae, the sister family and best outgroup to the Taxaceae (Hart, 1987; Keng, 1969).
The pollen strobilus of Amentotaxus lacks bracts but otherwise strongly resembles the compound arrangement of the pollen strobilus of Cephalotaxus.
It is distinguished from Cephalotaxus by its shorter, alternate leaves and open, red aril.
Torreya is distinguished from Cephalotaxus by its sessile or subsessile axils, lack of a prominent mid-rib, sunken stomatal bands that are narrower than or equal to the midrib and spine-tipped leaves.
50] tested ([mu]g/ml) + Psoralea corylifolia (2) Fruit 22 [+ or -] 6 (Leguminosae) Dianthus sinensis (1) Whole plant 111 [+ or -] 19 (Caryophyllaceae) Phytolacca polyandra (1) Whole plant 129 [+ or -] 13 (Phytolaccaceae) Sophora flavescens Ait (2) Root 134 [+ or -] 17 (Leguminosae) Cephalotaxus fortunei (2) Branch 134 [+ or -] 27 (Cephalotaxaceae) Polygonatum odoratum (1) Root 142 [+ or -] 11 (Convallariaceae) Coptis chinensis French (2) Whole plant 412 [+ or -] 32 (Ranunculaceae) Terminalia chebula Retz (2) Fruit 201 [+ or -] 51 (Combretaceae) Atropa belladonna (1) Fruit N/D (Solanaceae) Chelidonium majus (1) Whole plant N/D (Papaveraceae) Plantago major (1) Root N/D (Plantaginaceae) Plants orginated from: (1)National Botanic Gardens, Glasnevin, Dublin (2)Taiwan.
Wang DZ, MA, GE, Xu RS (1992) Studies on the alkaloids of Cephalotaxus.