resistance is suggestive of AmpC production, but it is not specific as resistance to cefoxitin
can also be mediated by certain class A [beta]- lactamases, carbapenemases and decreased production of outer membrane porins.
disk diffusion test is the most accurate phenotypic test to check the presence of the mecA gene in Staphylococcus aureus because cefoxitin
is a more potent inducer of mecA expression than other agents and the test results are relatively easy to interpret.
2) In addition, intrinsic resistance to cefamandole and cefoxitin
has also been recognized by EUCAST.
The sensitive and resistance rates to 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins and monocyclic lactams were close, but resistance rate to cefoxitin
was very low.
A disk containing 30g of cefoxitin
and a disk containing 30g of cefoxitin
and 400g of boronic acid were placed on the Mueller Hinton agar plate.
The antibiogram of gram positive cocci showed 100% sensitivity to vancomycin and Linezolid followed by high sensitivity to Azithromycin, Cefuroxime while moderate sensitivity was observed to Cefoxitin
, Levofloxacin Ampicillin and Amoxycillin/ clavulanic acid.
10) Antimicrobial disks (Mast, Bootle, UK) used for the susceptibility test included chloramphenicol (30 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), gentamicin (10 [micro]g), nalidixic acid (30 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 [micro]g), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX, 25 [micro]g), streptomycin (10 [micro]g), ampicillin (10 [micro]g), cefoxitin
(30 [micro]g), amikacin (30 [micro]g), ceftizoxime (30 [micro]g), cefotaxime (30 [micro]g) and cefepime (30 [micro]g).
All the samples were identified and tested for the sensitivity to Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Oxacillin and Cefoxitin
The antibiotics tested were the following : Penicillin G (PG-10 UI), Amoxicillin + Clavunique acid (AMC--20/10 [micro]g) , Oxacillin (Ox--1 [micro]g), Cefoxitin
(Fox-30 [micro]g), Erythromycin (E-15 [micro]g), Neomycin (N--30 [micro]g), Gentamicin (Gm-10 [micro]g), Enrofloxacin (ENR-5 [micro]g), Trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole (SXT--1,25/23,75 [micro]g), Tetracyclin (Te-30 [micro]g), Vancomycin (VA-30 [micro]g), Bacitracin (Ba-130 [micro]g), Clindamycin--Cm-2 [micro]g) .
aureus isolates, classified as MRSA if found resistant to cefoxitin
, methicillin, or oxacillin and as methicillin susceptible (MSSA) if susceptible to those antimicrobials.
One group received 2 g of cefoxitin
intravenously, the other saline solution, repeating the dosage every 6 h.
In accordance with Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines (2013), methicillin resistance was determined using a 30ug cefoxitin
disc on Mueller Hinton Agar plate by Modified Kirby-Bauer Disc diffusion technique4.
The bacterium was susceptible to clindamycin, cefoxitin
, meropenem, metronidazole, piperacillin-tazobactam, vancomycin, and teicoplanin and intermediate to penicillin (Table 1).
In the antibiotic sensitivity test, the isolate was found to be resistant to ampicillin, cephazolin and cefoxitin
and sensitive to ampicillin-sulbactam, amikacin, aztreonam, ceftriaxon, ceftazidim, cefepime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem and piperacillin-tazobactam.
The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of P aeruginosa isolated from superficial swab specimens prior to discharge revealed susceptibility to colistin only and resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefixime, cefuroxime, cefoxitin
, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, cefepime, ertapenem, nitrofurantoin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, imipinem, meropenem, tigecycline, amikacin, gentamycin and ciprofloxacin.