Overall, the Catholic system emerges as "relatively moderate and tolerant" (23) in comparison with the Waldensian, and more geared toward developing moral sensitivity than the Catharist
Instead, he tells us that it is "likely" that the intellectual roots of the Catharist heresy lie in "Jewish neo-Gnosticism, the early phase of Cabalism in southern France.
Thus, by a kind of intellectual sleight of hand, it becomes possible to blame the Jews not only for the Catharists but also for their inquisitors.
Both authors discuss the Catharist revival of the late thirteenth and early fourteenth centuries, accenting different aspects of it, and both offer epilogues on the later legacies of Catharism.
Lambert and Barber agree on the origin and spread of Catharist dualism.
Italian Cathars and their sixteenth-century heretical cousins do not have much in common, despite Carol Lansing's rather implausible concluding suggestion that Catharist ideas of human perfection somehow fed into Renaissance humanism.
Similarly, although Lansing proposes to place her Cathars in social and political context, the shortcomings of the local records are well illustrated by her ability to identify only three Cathars as from merchant families (really only two, since one of these was guilty through his son), a result which nevertheless helps to support the conclusion that Catharist ideas of self-restraint appealed to rising commercial classes.