In 1208 the Count of Toulouse, accused of defending the Cathar heresy
, had a turbulent meeting to discuss the situation with a papal legate, Pierre de Castelnau.
Modern researchers of the Cathar heresy
that arose in the Languedoc region of France in the thirteenth century have had the benefit of extensive writings recorded by the warriors who waged the Albigensian Crusade and meticulous records kept by the subsequent inquisition supervised by the Church.
Dated in the last half of the twelfth century, this mosaic of biblical quotation emerged against a background of political strife between pope and king in France and England, in the midst of clamours for reform, and against the background of the Cathar heresy
For example, JoAnn McNamara has shown a direct correlation between the authority attributed to women's religious voices in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century Europe and a desire on the part of ecclesiastical authorities to set forth as many arguments as possible against the Cathar heresy
and the Great Schism.