returned to normal 6 weeks postoperatively and have remained in the normal range at 6, 12, 18, and 30 month follow-up.
Further, this condition is more common in elderly and postmenopausal women, which suggests that low estrogen levels or a sex-related difference in myocardial sensitivity to catecholamines
might play a role in this condition (4, 5).
Giant cystic pheochromocytoma containing high concentrations of catecholamines
Tumours secreting catecholamines
often present nonspecifically with headache, palpitations and often paroxysmal hypertension.
Measuring the hormones of stress response including cortisol levels and catecholamines
has been done for a number of years in research circles and is becoming more common in clinical practice.
These biomarkers are not prone to the fluctuations seen for catecholamines
and can be measured in the form of plasma free MNs and urinary fractionated MNs.
Following the exhaustion, the samples were taken out from the device and after anesthesia, the blood samples were taken from them to measure catecholamines
and lactic acid.
As we know, the visceral fat tissues have more TNF[alpha] expression and more sensitive to catecholamines
than subcutaneous fat tissues (Amer 1999), which leads to more FFA efflux to the portal venous system and directly provides a substrate for hepatic lipoprotein metabolism or glucose production.
Body weight, blood pressure, metabolic parameters, urine catecholamines
and cortisol, antioxidant status and lymphocyte subsets were measured after each period.
Further investigations included 24-hour urinary catecholamines
, which were negative on two occasions.
1 Although these tumours are rare, their detection is of the utmost importance they are potentially lethal owing, firstly, to their ability to secrete catecholamines
, often with catastrophic consequences, and, secondly, to their potential to become malignant.
In mammals, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) are the two main systems activated in response to stress, resulting in increased secretion in blood of cortisol (HPA axis) and catecholamines
A similar case reported in 1990 indicated that adrenal cortical adenomas causing clinical features of phaeochromocytoma and elevated 24 hour urinary catecholamines
have been reported rarely and that patients with hypertension and on long term medication of beta blockers may have an increased urinary norepinephrine excretion (6).
The patient was considered unresponsive to catecholamines
when a doubling of the infusion rate had no desirable clinical effect.
Looking at endocrinology from the perspective of the intensive care unit, articles also cover endocrine disturbances caused by non-endocrine critical illnesses including neuroendocrine response, change within growth hormone and related axes in critical illness, are changes within the thyroid axis, adrenal response to critical illness, catecholamines
and vasopressin, novel insights into the diabetes of injury, and disorders of body water homeostasis.