Five of the 37 patients had IPH in both carotid arteries
The MRA images revealed bilateral persistent type 2 proatlantal arteries (Figure 1b, short white arrows) originating from the bilateral external carotid arteries
(Figure 1a, long white arrows) and eventually contributing to and forming the vertebrobasilar circulation (Figure 1a, 1b, yellow arrows).
Most retropharyngeal carotid arteries
are discovered as an incidental finding during evaluation of a trauma patient or in preoperative studies of the neck.
Eight carotid arteries
were reconstructed using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft, one using the cephalic vein, and one using the greater saphenous vein.
The carotid arteries
are located on each side of the neck and supply oxygen and blood to the front part of the brain where thinking, speech, personality, and sensory and motor functions are controlled.
Carotid artery disease occurs when the carotid arteries
that run through the neck and supply blood to the brain become partially clogged by plaque.
In October 1995, Medicare issued a national policy statement that limited coverage to the evaluation of carotid arteries
in patients who could not tolerate an angiogram.
About 20 percent of strokes are linked to blocked carotid arteries
In 1995, a national trial revealed that surgery can reduce the risk of stroke in symptom-free men whose carotid arteries
are narrowed by fatty deposits.
About half the study's patients had never suffered any symptoms of a stroke, despite showing significant blockages in their carotid arteries
Vulnerable plaques which can rupture in the carotid arteries
may lead to transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), strokes, or vision loss by affecting the artery to the retina.
The Carotid WALLSTENT Endoprosthesis with the FilterWire EZ System is the only carotid artery stent system approved in the United States with an indication that includes the treatment of bilateral carotid artery disease (blockages in the carotid arteries
on both sides of the neck).
The artery is divided into internal and external carotid arteries
at the upper rim of the thyroid cartilage.
It is the first device designed to access the carotid arteries
through an incision in the neck, instead of the groin, and uses a blood flow reversal system to capture pieces of the blockage dislodged during the procedure.
The ENROUTE TNS provides a minimally-invasive treatment for certain patients whose tortuous (twisted) or diseased vasculature does not permit access via the groin for treating their narrowed carotid arteries