reducta appears to be the most specialized towards carnivory and indeed it generally catches the largest amounts of prey.
The ability of the carnivorous brocchinia to acquire nutrients through carnivory is apparently so significant that both B.
Both undescribed variants appear to display all of the characteristics towards carnivory that B.
Carnivory, which developed several times during plant evolution, is only one of many possible adaptation strategies to unfavorable conditions (for a discussion of this, see Juniper et al.
Goebel summarized the importance of carnivory as early as 1893: "Carnivory is useful for plants but it is not indispensable.
The basic questions raised by biologists over the past 120 years involve the relative importance of foliar and root nutrition of CPs, the identification of the nutrients (elements) from prey bodies which are of principal importance for growth, the relationship between organic and mineral nutrition of CPs, and the importance of carnivory under natural conditions.
It is presumably the very low level of macronutrients available to plants which is the primary unfavorable ecological factor in these soils; this factor is overcome by carnivory (Luttge, 1983; Juniper et al.
Therefore, carnivory of most terrestrial CPs can be explained as an adaptation to all of these stress factors.
The relationship between CP photosynthetic performance and carnivory is complex and ambiguous (Juniper et al.
lack of competition) that CPs face in natural habitats, results reflect the potential abilities of CPs to take up nutrients through roots or leaves and to regulate these processes, rather than plant responses in natural habitats or the ecological importance of carnivory.
In this species, a large amount of nutrients coming from carnivory is stored in winter buds and utilized for vigorous growth throughout the following season.
To tease apart different potential evolutionary histories (whether carnivory
or water adaptations occurred first; the mesonychid or Indohyus relatedness ideas), Michelle Spaulding, lead author of the study, and colleagues, mapped the evolutionary relationships among more than 80 living and fossil taxa.
and foraging strategies, and the socio-economic function of early archaeological sites, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B 334: 211-21.