As Lidia began collecting the work of young artists, her father turned his attention to those long dead, acquiring predominantly gold-ground paintings and the Caravaggisti
, along with the medieval sculpture in the chapel.
Dirck van Baburen (1592/93-1624) is, together with Hendrick ter Brugghen and Gerrit van Honthorst, one of the key figures in the group of artists known as the Dutch Caravaggisti
With a series of aptly chosen canvases from the artist's youth, the Washington exhibition neatly demonstrates how Lievens cobbled together his Leiden manner, combining what he had learned from Lastman with the influence of the Utrecht Caravaggisti
, especially Gerard van Honthorst, to achieve a trenchant synthesis well in advance of Rembrandt, who needed several years to catch up.
The Van Gogh Museum's enjoyable exhibition comparing Rembrandt with Caravaggio appropriately opens with an eloquent demonstration that the inspiration for Rembrandt's chiaroscuro and unidealised models, for instance in his St Paul Writing (1630), can be traced back through the Dutch Caravaggisti
, such as Hornthorst's Mocking of Christ, to Caravaggio, whose Martyrdom of St Andrew (1607) shows the saint with a sunburnt neck in a raking fight that casts deep shadows over his ribcage.
The connection with Ribera is only superficial, as with other works of unknown Caravaggisti