An immediately preceding line maska gabbisu usakkal "he shall tan all the hides" is found only in caprid
contracts, presumably because the simpler tawing process for these hides with salt and alum--as opposed to the more complex and lengthier tanning procedure for bovine hides--could at least be started while the herdsman was in the field; see Hans E.
These two criteria, already present in earlier phases, take on more importance at a specific cultural time, the passage of the Solutrean to the Solutreo-Gravettian: this particular event is also shown by the fauna (Villaverde Bonilla 1991-1992) and by lithics (Tiffagom 2003): it is marked by the abrupt decrease in consumption of caprids
in favour of cervids, and with the appearance of bifacially retouched notched points (Figure 7).
The principal taxa of small herbivores are represented by caprids
(96 per cent); the remaining 4 per cent are gazelles.
Miracle) is dominated by red deer, followed by wild caprids
, chamois/ibex, birds, large bovids and other less frequent species.
The most usual animals in the Franco-Cantabrian caves, that is, horses, bovids, cervids and caprids, represent a total of 80 units, or 34% of the identifiable animals in the Grotte Chauvet, whereas the dangerous and generally rarer animals - rhinoceroses, felines, mammoths and bears - number 143, or almost double (60.
Out of the 67 animal statuettes recorded a few years ago in the Pavlovian, there were 21 bears, 11 small carnivores, 9 felines, 8 mammoths, 6 birds, 6 horses, 4 rhinoceroses, 1 caprid and 1 cervid.
At the cave of Caldeirao (Figure 5), excavated by the present author and located 20 km from Serra d'Aire, the highest elevation of Estremadura (678 m), the absence of horse and wild caprids contrasts markedly with their abundance in the underlying Solutrean levels (Povoas et al.
Even the more schematic show the characteristic twisted shape that unmistakably identifies these caprids as belonging to the Iberian variety of ibex, Capra pyrenaica (cf.
Stylistically, most of the figures have been ascribed to the end of the Solutrean and to the early Magdalenian They are dominated by horses, but cervids and caprids
are also well represented.
This represents an important difference from the other two sites, but is consistent with the emphasis on caprids
in the site fauna, since these are animals which are less critically dependent on water supplies than the larger herbivores, and which could have mitigated any effects of summer aridity by moving to high altitude pastures.