Examples can be found in three herding accounts, MUN 318 dealing with bovines and MUN 329 and 330 dealing with caprids
Most of the pendants from Dzudzuana are made from caprid
Our preliminary interpretation of the caprid
figure is that of an ibex, even though no unequivocal ibex remains have been found among the very rich faunal remains known for Late Glacial Britain.
Of 139 animal statuettes recorded (Hahn 1990: 178), there are 56 horses, 44 bison, 9 bears, 2 felines, 2 birds, 1 mammoth, 1 caprid, 1 cervid, 5 various species, 18 unidentified.
The most usual animals in the Franco-Cantabrian caves, that is, horses, bovids, cervids and caprids, represent a total of 80 units, or 34% of the identifiable animals in the Grotte Chauvet, whereas the dangerous and generally rarer animals - rhinoceroses, felines, mammoths and bears - number 143, or almost double (60.
On speciation in Ice Age mammals, with special reference to cervids and caprids
wild or domesticated cattle), equids, ibex and caprids
dominate the engravings.
On page 144 Wicke refers to a comb from Megiddo that reflects Aegean influence and says that the same influence can be seen in a comb decorated with caprids
from Tell Fakhariya.
One important conclusion is that caprids
shown frequently on the seal-amulets are not antelopes, as often suggested, but ibexes.
These two criteria, already present in earlier phases, take on more importance at a specific cultural time, the passage of the Solutrean to the Solutreo-Gravettian: this particular event is also shown by the fauna (Villaverde Bonilla 1991-1992) and by lithics (Tiffagom 2003): it is marked by the abrupt decrease in consumption of caprids
in favour of cervids, and with the appearance of bifacially retouched notched points (Figure 7).
The principal taxa of small herbivores are represented by caprids
(96 per cent); the remaining 4 per cent are gazelles.
Miracle) is dominated by red deer, followed by wild caprids
, chamois/ibex, birds, large bovids and other less frequent species.
At the cave of Caldeirao (Figure 5), excavated by the present author and located 20 km from Serra d'Aire, the highest elevation of Estremadura (678 m), the absence of horse and wild caprids
contrasts markedly with their abundance in the underlying Solutrean levels (Povoas et al.
Stylistically, most of the figures have been ascribed to the end of the Solutrean and to the early Magdalenian They are dominated by horses, but cervids and caprids
are also well represented.
This represents an important difference from the other two sites, but is consistent with the emphasis on caprids
in the site fauna, since these are animals which are less critically dependent on water supplies than the larger herbivores, and which could have mitigated any effects of summer aridity by moving to high altitude pastures.