Figure 5 also includes calquing
errors due to an unexpected correlation between typographic/accent-mark errors and calquing
In parallel to the notions of linguistic competence and communicative competence, the notion of conceptual competence should be introduced into SL theories to take account of the above calquing
process (Danesi 2003).
The right-headedness of earlier compounds and of neologisms is often the result of borrowing or calquing
from sources that have right-headed compounding (e.
involves the use of an existing word in a new semantic environment, such as "correr para presidente," taking the English meaning of the verb "to run (for office)" and extending it to the Spanish verb correr, which in monolingual Spanish does not carry such meaning.
Most readers, though, will enjoy the liveliness of the Lambeth scribe's attempts to stretch English to render the vocabulary of Latin--from the calquing
of `laudabili vita' as `laudable lyf' in folio [240.
Similarly, they may say "I have 15 years" and "I am born in Montreal" calquing
the French forms.
The word "calque" is very useful for understanding this chapter, but it is only through Shippey's summarization of the connections between the two works that the calquing
becomes straightforward; Tolkien's use of the first third of Beowulf as a source for the Meduseld scenes actually forms, on closer examination, a concerted and pervasive rhetoric, built upon the calquing
Admittedly, the systematic, scientific application of dongwu in such terms as dongwuxue ("zoology") was undoubtedly the result of a calquing
process in emulation of Japanese dobutsu and related words.
In some languages, including Nahuatl and Pipil, these relational nouns have been reanalyzed as prepositions, apparently calquing