Figure 5 also includes calquing
errors due to an unexpected correlation between typographic/accent-mark errors and calquing
It is therefore justifiable to claim that the process of calquing
was much more influential than borrowing in terms of the formation of adequate tools in Scots legal discourse.
In parallel to the notions of linguistic competence and communicative competence, the notion of conceptual competence should be introduced into SL theories to take account of the above calquing
process (Danesi 2003).
In the second half of the 19th century, Hungarian models--along with Latin, German and Czech ones--played an important role, via calquing
, in the conscious shaping of literary, colloquial and technical language in the lexical areas connected to state administration, i.
The manner of expression in calquing
in the sense of "taking over the inner form of words") depends on the language type--a morphologized language prefers derivatives (Czech mainly through the creation of suffixes), while a lexicalized language is more likely to choose constructional (multi-word) nomination.
Halliday (1978: 87) has observed that in the field of scientific terminology there are seven strategies for lexico-semantic innovation, namely, reinterpretation of existing words, creation of new words from native resources, creation of new words from foreign resources, borrowing, calquing
, creation of locutions and, finally, inventing new words.
This is beyond the scope of this preliminary investigation, and furthermore, it is likely impossible to prove that calquing
per se is the basis for these backward compounds, since izafat compounding can be used with relative freedom.
The right-headedness of earlier compounds and of neologisms is often the result of borrowing or calquing
from sources that have right-headed compounding (e.
involves the use of an existing word in a new semantic environment, such as "correr para presidente," taking the English meaning of the verb "to run (for office)" and extending it to the Spanish verb correr, which in monolingual Spanish does not carry such meaning.
Fuertes-Olivera and Mercedes Garcia de Quesada (en prensa): "The Translator as 'Language Planner': Syntactic Calquing
in an English Spanish Technical Translation of Chemical Engineering".
Similarly, they may say "I have 15 years" and "I am born in Montreal" calquing
the French forms.
D'autres utilisent les modeles trouves dans l'apprentissage des langues secondes, tels que le calquing
(Keesing  et Jourdan et Keesing ) attribuent a ce processus certaines des proprietes du pidgin des Iles Salomon.
The word "calque" is very useful for understanding this chapter, but it is only through Shippey's summarization of the connections between the two works that the calquing
becomes straightforward; Tolkien's use of the first third of Beowulf as a source for the Meduseld scenes actually forms, on closer examination, a concerted and pervasive rhetoric, built upon the calquing
Admittedly, the systematic, scientific application of dongwu in such terms as dongwuxue ("zoology") was undoubtedly the result of a calquing
process in emulation of Japanese dobutsu and related words.
In some languages, including Nahuatl and Pipil, these relational nouns have been reanalyzed as prepositions, apparently calquing