However, the first task to be fulfilled is to describe the attitude of Lithuanian linguists, translators and other interested parties to translation, particularly, to using foreign words, calques
, translation changes and other translation techniques, which influences the choice of the particular strategy of translation.
Beef is also a part of the phrase--miec z kims beef which is a calque
of an English phrase to have beef with somebody.
Following previous studies, it was established that the categories that would be most impacted by time pressure would be typographic and spelling mistakes, lexical and syntactic calques
, inadequate omissions and additions.
, the loan-translations from English, show the status of the Spanish language within the Garcia family.
The author rightly distinguishes between a calque
(she does not use this classic term, which is more precise, however, than those she found in the literature) and a borrowing and rightly summons the Gumperz and Wilson example of INC being brought from Marathi into neighboring languages, an example she cleverly opposes to the widespread idea that calques
induce systems to simplify.
Il est generalement reconnu que les paragraphes 17(2), 18(2) et 19(2) de l'avis de motion furent calques
sur l'article 133 de la Loi constitutionnelle de 1867 qui confere des droits similaires aux niveaux federal et quebecois (111), ainsi que manitobain par le biais de l'article 23 de la Loi de 1870 sur le Manitoba (112).
It should be stressed here that the vocabulary of the traditional Yiddish Bible translation language includes no Hebrew elements at all, but consists mainly of genetically Germanic calques
, taken partly from Hebrew, partly from the language of the older Judeo-French Bible translation of Sephardic Jewry.
Another aspect of the poet-scribe's renewal of the Repubblica delle lettere is to write calques
, rifacimenti, or homages to the great poets of the past.
Neo-realist linguistic investigation was for the most part limited to the mimesis of a spoken Italian replete with calques
from the dialects in the name of a heightened realism and the reduction to the absolute minimum the literary mediation of language (Manacorda, 466-67).
Homophonic translation" usefully names a recognizable way of dealing with the relation between "foreign" speech and "native" meaning through a set of multilingual practices that can be: creatively liberating, as often for students in poetry workshops; good for a laugh, as for generations of English schoolboys learning Latin; or symptomatic of mental disorder, as in the case of Freud's polyglot patient who distanced himself from his mother('s) tongue by compulsively reconstituting all the words of his "native" language as phonetic calques
on "foreign" ones.
Often his stock phrases are calques
of the Spanish syntax, as in "Where have you been all these days I don't see you," and ungrammaticalities such as "[h]e say that don't matter you are Hispanic.
As such, calques
may very well be the philosopher's stone of discourse, the elixir or mother's milk of living language, an archeology of knowledge, transmuting the violent trampling of translation into the intercourse of loan.
Certains passages, comme la conclusion de la section << Romans >>, sont des calques
presque parfaits des memes sections du tome VI, comme s'il fallait, par souci de continuite, dire la meme chose dans les memes mots.
The Francophone cultural model promoted by Karamzin had led to a "Frenchification" of the Russian language through Gallic expressions and Franco-Russian calques
A feature of alien speech in For Whom the Bell Tolls consists in morphosyntactically anomalous calques
of Spanish phrases reminiscent of utterances produced by Spanish speakers with a limited command of English.