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2]R, where E is the rate at which electric energy is dissipated when an electric current passes through a resistance, which was clearly in conflict with the prevailing caloric theory.
Focusing on but one standard and dimension of success ("novel predictions"), Psillos can plausibly argue that a successful theory (for example, the caloric theory of heat) had components (for example, the existence and causal role of the caloric) that did not play any essential role in producing its success (the novel prediction of calorimetric laws such as the conservation of heat (115-19)).
His later writings indicate he was dissatisfied with the caloric theory and, had he not died in 1832, Carnot might have preempted Joule in rejecting it.
Being familiar with the recent development of the first law, he discovered and corrected the error due to the caloric theory, which led him to his discovery of an absolute temperature scale.