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  • noun

Synonyms for caliph

the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth

References in classic literature ?
One of this nation of mighty conjurors created a man out of brass and wood, and leather, and endowed him with such ingenuity that he would have beaten at chess, all the race of mankind with the exception of the great Caliph, Haroun Alraschid.
While the vizir, Giafar, was talking to the ladies the Caliph was occupied in wondering who they could be, and why the three Calenders had each lost his right eye.
Having done this she begged the Calenders to sit on a sofa on one side of the room, and the Caliph and his friends to place themselves opposite.
Zobeida then got up from her seat between the Calenders and the Caliph and walked slowly across to where the porter stood with the dogs.
The Caliph in particular could hardly contain himself, and made signs to the vizir to ask what it all meant.
The Calenders and the Caliph looked at each other, and whispered together, unheard by Zobeida and Sadie, who were tending their fainting sister.
At length the Caliph could contain his curiosity no longer, and declared that he would compel the ladies to tell them the meaning of their strange conduct.
The seven culprits all thought their last hour had come, and the Caliph repented bitterly that he had not taken the vizir's advice.
The Caliph, who was naturally very impatient, suffered far more than either of the others at feeling that his life was at the mercy of a justly offended lady, but when he heard her question he began to breathe more freely, for he was convinced that she had only to learn his name and rank for all danger to be over.
The first three caliphs were leaders in the Muslim community between about 632 and 656.
Islam spread and entered through the leadership of righteous caliphs, while Al Sisi took the roles of the self-righteous caliph; he who could do no wrong, with unquestionable legitimacy and power.
It should also be noted that there was no professional army during the period of the Prophet or righteous caliphs.
According to SCTA, this unique route's history dates back to the pre-Islamic era, but its importance increased after the emergence of Islam, in the time of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and the Caliphs and later during the time of the Umayyads.
This article tries to present the research about the mentioned issues to investigate the part of the culture and civilization of Islamic world and showing its effect on the attitude of the Abbasid caliphs from translation of this text.
He was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs in history.