In addition, we found greater transcript levels in liver for all enzymes of butanoate
metabolism (such as butyryl Coenzyme A synthetase 1, enoyl Coenzyme A hydratase, hydroxyacyl-Coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) as well as all five alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isoforms for metabolizing ethanol and retinol.
In contrast to this, the persistence of the following odorants, methyl butanoate
, ethyl butanoate
, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl hexanoate, methional, hexyl 3-methylbutanoate, 3-methylbutyl acetate, [beta]-damascenone, 2-methoxyphenol, 2-ethyl-4-hydroxy-5-methyl-3(2H)-furanone and ethyl cinnamate was reduced.
Considering the structural differences among the isolated casearins, we suggest that the substituent butanoate
at C-18 present in casearin J might have contributed to the higher efficacy among the four tested diterpenoids.
1563 Dehydromatricaria ester * 1563 2412 (E)-Nerolidol 1563 2032 Dendrolasin 1563 2044 Lauric acid 1568 2495 Spatulenol# 1568 2120 Geranyl butanoate
1570 1883 Caryophyllene oxide# 1572 1965 Matricaria lactone * 1578 2584 Dihydronerolidol 1580 2108 Humulene-1,2-epoxide 1580 trans-a-Bisabolene epoxide 1582 2108 NI (7), benzenemethanol, 1595 2324 [alpha]-1-octenyl-?
The investigators found ethyl butanoate
, ethyl hexanoate, linalool, 2-heptanone, ionone, 2-heptanol, hexanal, cis-3-hexenol, trans-2-hexenol and furaneol to be the major aroma compounds in Black Diamond.