According to Archimedes' principle, the

buoyancy force must be equal to the weight of the volume of the fluid of the object should displace.

The effects of

buoyancy force strengthens relative to the viscous force with increasing [Ra.

The integral characteristics for the dummy were calculated by the direct integration of the measured values of air speed and air temperature excess, and subsequently, the characteristics were reduced to 75% for volume flux, to 68% for momentum flux, to 85% for

buoyancy force density, and to 89% for enthalpy flux to obtain the same proportions as for the integral characteristics in the manikin plume calculated by the ADI method and the direct integration method.

This is due to the increase of

buoyancy force in tangent direction of the plate.

The variation of u with buoyancy ratio parameter N shows that when the molecular

buoyancy force dominates over the thermal

buoyancy force [absolute value of u] experiences an enhancement irrespective of the directions of the

buoyancy forces (fig.

The rise of bubbles in infinite liquid due to the

buoyancy force is studied by direct numerical simulation using level set method.

These simulations revealed that for the materials considered in the real castings, the

buoyancy force is the major contributor to the core distortion.

Subject to dynamic change of boundary temperature, the induced

buoyancy force can be meaningful.

The variation of u with N shows that when the molecular

buoyancy force dominates over the thermal

buoyancy force the actual axial velocity experiences a depreciation when the

buoyancy forces act in the same direction while for the forces acting in the opposite directions it experiences an enhancement in the flow region (fig.

Vertical placement of the core within the cavity allows for longer cores than horizontal orientation (due to the elimination of a

buoyancy force acting on the core).

The Fr number is the ratio of the inertia force to the

buoyancy force and Reynolds number is the ratio of the inertia force to the viscous force.

When the molecular

buoyancy force dominates over the thermal

buoyancy force the axial velocity depreciates irrespective of the directions of the

buoyancy forces.

These flow patterns in the vent depend on the vent geometry, the magnitude of the

buoyancy force that drives the flow across it, and, to a great extent, the flow patterns in enclosures themselves.

The Boussinesq model in CFD or other applications treats the density as a constant value in all dynamic equations, except for the

buoyancy force term in the momentum equation.

Notice that in vertical refrigerated display case the momentum force of air jetting from DAG and

buoyancy force counteracts with each other, resulting in imbalance during simulations.