It has been estimated that more than 70% of the bacterial species on body surfaces cannot be cultured by standard culture techniques,[sup], traditional culture-based studies have described the bronchial tree
as sterile in healthy individuals,[sup], and only low-load colonizing potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) can be found during diseases.
It has been speculated that parasympathetic stimulation from surgery may be responsible, considering that the smooth muscle of the bronchial tree
has muscarinic receptors, which produce bronchial constriction when activated by cholinergic stimulation.
In some cases, intraparenchymal bronchogenic cysts may communicate with the bronchial tree
, resulting in air-filled cysts or an air-fluid level.
Multiple tortuous systemic arteries were seen along the right bronchial tree
He said Mrs Preston contracted a condition called aspiration pneumonia, which develops due to the entrance of foreign materials into the bronchial tree
, or "food and drink going down the wrong way".
Another area of potential concern regarding inhaled insulin is the possible effect on the tissues that it comes in contact with on its way to the alveoli, including the linings of the mouth, throat, tongue, cheeks, gums, tonsils, trachea, bronchial tree
, vocal cords, larynx, nasal air sinuses, and olfactory mucosa (which has a direct connection to the brain).
Examples include the sliding interface between the lung and the chest, and structural impact of bronchial tree
in the lungs.
Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a communication between the pleural space and the bronchial tree
Diagnostic criteria for bronchial anthracosis was based on direct observation of bronchial tree
, (1) thus, in view of bronchoscopy, patients with black discoloration of bronchus were selected and labeled as bronchial anthracosis.
The tracheal wound was debrided and used as a tracheostomy; a spent bullet in the bronchial tree
was missed on initial evaluation but later successfully retrieved bronchoscopically.
Confronted with suffocating pleasure at the hands of apathetic, riddling whores, his light blinks out, "as if all the bifurcations of the bronchial tree
were swollen shut and the air was stuck at the crossroads, incapable of choosing a path.
The conducting portions include the upper airway, trachea and bronchial tree
down to the bronchioles.
We believe that mucus is moved in the more peripheral bronchi, not by a blast of expired air, but by the squeezing action of the narrowing and shortening of the bronchial tree
during forced expiration the peripheral branches shortening towards the central bronchi.
The following mechanisms are considered as having for BA development in pathology of nose and its paranasal cavities: 1) development of inflammatory processes in the lungs while penetration of different allergen substances from pathologically changed paranasal cavities; 2) increased blockade of [beta]-adrenergic receptors resulting in increase of the bronchial tree
irritability; 3) reflector bronchospasm due to increase in anxiety of parasympathetic nervous system (Ussel, 2001).
Papillomas are uncommon benign tumors of the lower bronchial tree