Light and electron microscopic study on the mycorrhizae of sporophytes of Botrychium
Virginian um-arbuscular structures resembling fossil forms.
This is consistent with what has been found for Botrychium
and Ophioglossum gametophytes in culture.
OPHIOGLOSSACEAE (Adder's Tongue Family) Botrychium
Canada's Maritime Provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Quebec are reported to harbor 14 species of Botrychium
(Cody and Britton, 1989; Wagner and Wagner, 1993; Kartesz, 1999), not including Botrychium
pumicola study sites arranged by elevation in the Cascade Range of central and southern Oregon and northern California.
Progressing distally from the root, Psilophyton crenulatum, the most basal clade, comprises the psilotophytes Psilotum + Tmesipteris, followed by the equisetophyte Equisetum, the seed plant Pinus, the ophioglossalean ferns Ophioglossum + Botrychium
, the marattiaceous ferns Marattia + Angiopteris, and the "leptosporangiate" clade that consists of the Filicales + the Hydropteridales [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 4 OMITTED].
Consistent with this expectation, a considerable excess of homozygotes has been found within populations of species of Botrychium
and Mankyua (Ophioglossaceae), which have subterranean gametophytes that obligately self-fertilize via intragametophytic selfing (McCauley et al.
In addition, Acalypha deamii (stare imperiled), Aesculus flava (state watch list), and Botrychium
biternaturn (state watch list) have been reported here (R.
Wofford & Patrick, 1980), Botrychium
simplex is predominantly an American species, growing in western and eastern temperate to boreal North America and southern Greenland (Wagner and Wagner, 1993).
Herbaceous and fern species occurring only in this habitat include Apios americana, Arisaema dracontium, Botrychium
Recent detailed investigations of shoot development in Botrychium
(Imaichi, 1989; Imaichi & Nishida, 1986) indicate that a regularly segmenting tetrahedral shoot apical cell is usually identifiable.
Spore germination and young gametophyte development of Botrychium
and Ophioglossum in axenic culture.
The presence of AMF in Anemia phyllitidis and Botrychium
virginicum, as well as the absence of AMF in Asplenium praemorsum were confirmed, consistent with previous literature (Berch and Kendrick, 1982; Zhao, 2000; Wang and Qiu, 2006).
Finally, the two most common ferns of the older woods are Botrychium
virginianum and Cystopteris protrusa.