To make the more ordered beta sheet
, the researchers found they had to use alanine and glycine at certain positions.
Instead of building the molecule piecemeal, he created a synthetic gene to manufacture beta sheets
and spliced it into Escherichia coli bacteria.
As with the development of amyloid plaques in people with Alzheimer's disease, certain molecules take on a seemingly sinister configuration -- the beta sheet
-- and accumulate as plaques.
The molecule has two different features: a series of slats called a beta sheet
(a structure commonly found in proteins) and regions of complicated loops.
Fudge compares the structure of the fibres to spider silk, which contains layers of crystalline planes called beta sheets
separated by soft rubbery bits.
FAD domain consists five stranded parallel beta sheets
(7-10, 31-35, 119-124, 155-158 and 322-324), three stranded antiparallel beta sheets
(126-129, 134-138 and 149-152) and four alpha helices (14-26, 50-78, 92-116 and 335-349).
In a report published in the June Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Wanker and his collaborators showed that a small molecule called (--)-epigallocatechin gallate (mercifully shortened to EGCG) can keep A-beta and alpha-synuclein from forming beta sheets
a comovirus such as CPMV) having a beta-barrel structure at an immunogenically effective site, such as in a loop connecting beta sheets
or at/near the C-terminus.