Bessemer process

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Related to Bessemer steel: Henry Bessemer
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an industrial process for making steel using a Bessemer converter to blast air through molten iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities

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Bessemer steel producers soon began to recognize the importance of limiting the phosphorus content of iron ore, and they began to hire industrial scientists to perform chemical analysis.
Research efforts into steel by steel-consuming firms began in the late nineteenth century and intensified in the early twentieth century, driven at first by expanded use of Bessemer steel in many industrial products previously fabricated from wood, iron, or rubber and later by increased rates of failure in Bessemer steel products.
Small firms, he argues, were not all bludgeoned to death immediately after Andrew Carnegie and others built their large, and efficient, Bessemer steel works.
The firm experimented with mechanical puddling in the early 1860s, but quickly switched from wrought iron to Bessemer steel in the 1870s.
Born in Dundee in 1820, Kirkaldy worked as a draughtsman at Robert Napier's Vulcan Foundry Works in Glasgow at a time when new materials such as Bessemer steels were coming into use.