It is called a "bombardier" because it ejects a hot, highly noxious spray of aqueous benzoquinones
, oxygen, and steam as a defense mechanism against would-be predators (Aneshansley et al.
Benzoquinones are potent electrophiles and acceptors in the Micheal reaction and can readily react with thiol enzymes such as thioredoxin and glutathione in cells (Hayashi et al.
In conclusion we have shown that atrovirinone, a naturally-occuring benzoquinone from the roots of G.
Chemically, phenols and benzoquinones
predominate within laniatorid secretions, while acyclic components and, at least in Phalangium opilio Linnaeus 1758, also naphthoquinones (Wiemer et al.
When model predictions of adduct levels were plotted versus benzene exposure [greater than or equal to] 1 ppm, we observed marked downward concavity, particularly for adducts of the benzoquinones.
CONCLUSIONS: Although albumin adducts of BO and the benzoquinones reflect exposures to benzene [greater than or equal to] 1 ppm, they would not be useful biomarkers of exposure at ambient levels of benzene, which tend to be < 0.
Research in the ecological chemistry of harvestmen has so far been focused on gonyleptomorph Laniatores, all of which produce a mixture of benzoquinones
(at least 37 different molecules), while the chemistry of the defensive secretion is not known for even a single member of the Dyspnoi and is known for only one travunioid, Sclerobunus nondimorphicus Briggs 1971.
Previous studies on Miconia species have shown the presence of triterpenes, coumarins and benzoquinones
(Lowry, 1968; Macari et al.
The di- or trihydroxy metabolites are further oxidized in the bone marrow by myeloperoxidase (MPO) to benzoquinones
(Schattenberg et al.
activates the ERK/MAPK signaling pathway via ROS production in HL-60 cells.
General procedure for the syntheses of Benzoquinone intermediates (A)
All the five triphenodioxazines were prepared by the oxidative cyclisation of the benzoquinone intermediates.