CONCLUSIONS: Although albumin adducts of BO and the benzoquinones reflect exposures to benzene [greater than or equal to] 1 ppm, they would not be useful biomarkers of exposure at ambient levels of benzene, which tend to be < 0.
Although the benzoquinones are capable of forming multi-S-substituted adducts and crosslinks, our assay only detected mono-S-substituted adducts.
The effects of cigarette smoking were much more pronounced for adducts of the benzoquinones in both low (< 1 ppm: p = 0.
2002a, 2002b), then our results indicate that the saturable effects are greater for metabolism to the benzoquinones than for metabolism to BO (Figure 1).
Gunatilaka AAL, Berger JM, Evans R, Miller JS, Wisse JH, Neddermann KM, Bursuker I, Kingston DGI (2001) Isolation, Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of bioative benzoquinones
from Miconia lepidota from the Suriname rainforest.