Among the beguines
were celebrated spiritual writers and mystics, including Mechthild of Magdeburg, Beatrijs of Nazareth, Hadewijch of Brabant, and Marguerite Porete, who was condemned as a heretic and burned at the stake in Paris in 1310.
lived lives of prayer and service, and where, when and how they lived these lives depended very much on their personal circumstances and surroundings.
Examples abound throughout the book; the society of the Beguines
and Beghards, referenced in several sections, are certainly outside the modern norm.
appeared originally in the cities of the Low Countries at the beginning of the thirteenth century, as women moved to town in large numbers to work in the cloth industry or as servants or nurses or even teachers--a number of public schools were established in the cities, serving girls as well as boys and needing teachers of both sexes.
He uses evidence from documents of practice such as wills, obituary books, hearth censuses, cartularies, and guild records to show when formal beguinages were founded, whether they were of the convent or court type, how many beguines
inhabited these communities, how beguines
were employed in the community and urban workforce, and, perhaps most revealingly, the socioeconomic status of both founders and members of beguine
In creating this image, he was likely influenced by the contemporary Christian laywomen's movement of the Beguines
who placed great emphasis on literacy as well as by the then-commonly accepted metaphor of reading as a form of contemplation and prayer.
All her novels since the remarkable Le rempart des Beguines
of 1951 have centered on this subject, but in those written after the author's religious conversion of 1955, as is evident in Sept demons dans la ville, she has superimposed a spiritual element upon the social disquiet.
Studies of late medieval female spirituality so often focus on the Beguines
, women mystics, or anchorites.
Contractor address : Immeuble Le Cervier B 12 avenue de Beguines
Bumham's study of a condemned group of French beguines
associated with the Franciscans, who were gathering at night to talk about God.
were a sect of devout women in Belgium, Holland, Germany, and France who lived a loosely structured religious life, often occupying entire neighborhoods where more than 1,500 women lived.
Whereas the Flemish beguines
are mainly drawn from the bourgeoisie, Doucelina's are often aristocratic, giving her connections in high places.
As such they conformed to the basic type of the Beguines
and other mulieres sanctae of previous centuries.
You can look at a group like the 14th-century Beguines
, a women's religious movement in the European lowlands.
The exception, of course, was the beguines
, who were neither fish (avowed) nor fowl (secular women).