Draney [*] Draney [*] Hanhniidae Draney [*] Draney [*] Ants Myrmecina Masuko, 1994 Hanula [+] Reptiles Terrepene carolina Edwards G and S, 1991 Salamanders Batrachoseps
attenuatus Adams, 1968 Adams, 1968 Eurycea longicauda A and M, 1967 A and M, 1967 G and S, 1991 Notophthalmus viridescens N and M, 1976 MacNamara, 1977 G and S, 1991 Plethodon glutinosus P and T, 1974 P and T, 1974 G and S, 1991 P.
Parallel clines in multiple species, such as the vertebral clines in Batrachoseps, often signal adaptation to an environmental gradient (e.
Elongation has evolved in at least seven lineages of plethodontids, including Batrachoseps, and appears to be related to the evolution of a fossoriality or semifossoriality (Wake 1966).
My results indicate that (1) number of trunk vertebrae is an evolutionarily labile trait in Batrachoseps; (2) most of the geographic variation in number of trunk vertebrae is genetically determined; (3) reaction norms have evolved extensively between populations of Batrachoseps, both in degree of plasticity and in direction, but the magnitude of plasticity is too low to explain the geographic variation; and (4) much of the intrapopulational variation results from sexual dimorphism.
Modal number of trunk vertebrae was determined for 38 populations of Batrachoseps by x-raying, clearing and staining, or counting costal grooves.
The cr indicate that the robust SEKI-20167 is likely a member of the genus Aneides, and not of the more slender Plethodon, Hydromantes, Batrachoseps (possibly including B.
The parapophysis is offset slightly from the diapophysis indicating that SEKI-20166 is not Hydromantes or Batrachoseps.
Although it is not understood specifically which salamanders live today in the immediate vicinity of Bear Den Cave, the vegetation community would imply that the more mesic areas would harbor some Batrachoseps, Ensatina, and Taricha.
Plethodontidae: Batrachoseps attenuatus (8): Hydromantes platycephalus (1; juvenile); H.
Traits denoted with an '*' indicate characters used as autapomorphies for Batrachoseps (see below).
The combination of traits displayed by CHIS 6840 and 6841 (and partly by CHIS 6842; presented above) appear to be autapomorphies for Batrachoseps (*), and do not occur on other plethodontid species; the three trunk vertebrae represent Batrachoseps.
In this region the Plethodontini include Aneides (climbing salamanders), Ensatina (ensatina), and Plethodon (woodland salamanders); and the Bolitoglossini include Batrachoseps (slender salamanders) and Hydromantes (web-toed salamanders) (Wake 1993; Jackman et al.
Taxonomy of Grismer (1993) Newly proposed taxonomy Caudata Plethodontidae Batrachoseps pacificus major B.
Batrachoseps major, Uta stansburiana, Elgaria multicarinata, Diadophis punctatus, Hypsiglena torquata, Pituophis catenifer.
Aneides lugubris (Isla Norte), Batrachoseps major, Uta stansburiana, Eumeces skiltonianus (islas Norte and Sur), Cnemidophorus tigris (islas Norte and Sur), Elgaria [nana.