Barlow spent two years in North Africa, hammering out agreements and working to the keep the United States from going to war with the Barbary States
Most of these studies are, in addition, redundant insofar as they all glorified the young and inexperienced American state and underlined its brave efforts to strike commercial deals with the "predatory" Barbary States
As a method of countering the pirates, commerce raiding would not prove effective because the Barbary states
did not have large merchant marines.
In 1795, the United States paid more than $ 1 million for the release of 115 sailors and the same amount, demanded by the Barbary States
, as tribute to prevent further attacks.
ships, Jefferson sent the Navy to bombard Tripoli (now Libya's capital), starting a war that lasted four years, defeated the Barbary states
, and ended piracy in the region.
In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay bribes demanded by pirates from the Barbary States
of North Africa to guarantee American ships safe passage through the Mediterranean.
From the Barbary wars (fought against the Barbary States
, which included parts of modern Libya) to gunboat diplomacy in Asia to the many military interventions over the last few decades (Grenada, Lebanon, Somalia, the no-fly zone over Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo), the United States has often tried to find ways to use its military and yet not engage in all-out war.
These independent entities, nominally under the rule of the Ottoman sultan, were known as the Barbary States
, after the Berber tribes.
Wheelan, without forcing his opinion, boldly places the reader in a position to see the prequel to history repeating itself--Jefferson's actions against the Barbary States
(1801-1805) on foreign soil vis-a-vis Bush's actions against Afghanistan and Iraq (2001-present) on foreign soil.
As recently as the 1820s, pirates from the Islamic North African Barbary States
were capturing Christians from trading vessels in the Mediterranean and Atlantic and enslaving them.
The popular shorthand for the depredations of the Barbary corsairs at the time was "the Terror"; Wheelan makes the point clearer by calling it "state-sponsored terrorism," and the payment of ransom in the form of tribute to the Barbary states
The author carefully integrates his readings of the drama with his discussion of international alliances and military actions involving England, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, the Low Countries, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Austria, Russia, Morocco and the Barbary States
, the Ottoman Empire, and Safavid Persia.
Thomas Jefferson called the Barbary States
'petty powers' and declared they were no match for the new America, but the pirates commissioned by these North African states managed to stop American shipping and commerce cold.
In the War of 1812, he captured the British frigate, HMS Macedonia; and in 1816 forced the capitulation of the Barbary States
Meanwhile, historian Joanne Pope Melish presents an analysis of the relationship between racism and republicanism in a two pronged essay on the mutability of the marks of servility in "white Negroes" in the nineteenth-century US and enslaved whites in the Barbary states
of North Africa.