Finally, the authorization required the Secretary of War to halt construction of the ships if the Barbary States
agreed to cease capturing American vessels.
We must debate these issues and arrive at a coherent strategy, however, before the wholesale theft of American intellectual property in cyberspace begins to look like the centuries-long insult of extortion payments paid to the Barbary states
Most of these studies are, in addition, redundant insofar as they all glorified the young and inexperienced American state and underlined its brave efforts to strike commercial deals with the "predatory" Barbary States
As a method of countering the pirates, commerce raiding would not prove effective because the Barbary states
did not have large merchant marines.
The Spanish government negotiated the return of the captured ship and crew and advised the United States to offer tribute to the Barbary States
to prevent further attacks.
In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay bribes demanded by pirates from the Barbary states
(including what is now Libya) to guarantee American ships safe passage on trade routes through the Mediterranean.
In 1801, President Thomas Jefferson refused to pay bribes demanded by pirates from the Barbary States
of North Africa to guarantee American ships safe passage through the Mediterranean.
From the Barbary wars (fought against the Barbary States
, which included parts of modern Libya) to gunboat diplomacy in Asia to the many military interventions over the last few decades (Grenada, Lebanon, Somalia, the no-fly zone over Iraq, Bosnia, Kosovo), the United States has often tried to find ways to use its military and yet not engage in all-out war.
These independent entities, nominally under the rule of the Ottoman sultan, were known as the Barbary States
, after the Berber tribes.
Perry sailed for the Barbary states
when President Jefferson resisted paying bribes to its rulers and became close to a fellow sailor, James Lawrence.
Wheelan, without forcing his opinion, boldly places the reader in a position to see the prequel to history repeating itself--Jefferson's actions against the Barbary States
(1801-1805) on foreign soil vis-a-vis Bush's actions against Afghanistan and Iraq (2001-present) on foreign soil.
As recently as the 1820s, pirates from the Islamic North African Barbary States
were capturing Christians from trading vessels in the Mediterranean and Atlantic and enslaving them.
The popular shorthand for the depredations of the Barbary corsairs at the time was "the Terror"; Wheelan makes the point clearer by calling it "state-sponsored terrorism," and the payment of ransom in the form of tribute to the Barbary states
The author carefully integrates his readings of the drama with his discussion of international alliances and military actions involving England, Spain, Portugal, Ireland, the Low Countries, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Austria, Russia, Morocco and the Barbary States
, the Ottoman Empire, and Safavid Persia.
Strategically located along vital shipping routes between the Mediterranean and Atlantic, the Barbary states
of Tunis, Morocco, Algeria, and Tripolitania (today's Libya) had all built their economies around the piracy of foreign merchant ships at sea and the selling of their crews into slavery.