Further discussion of "early-diverging" lineages refers to Anomochlooideae, Pharoideae, Bambusoideae (including Bambuseae, Parianeae, and Olyreae), and Ehrhartoideae, four putative lineages that are often placed within a broadly defined Bambusoideae and that diverge earliest from the diverse lineage that includes Brachyelytrum, Pooideae, and the PACC clade.
all grasses except Anomochloa and Streptochaeta) there is a pectinate arrangement among a series of lineages that have often been assigned to Bambusoideae, with Pharus, Ehrhartoideae, Eremitis, Bambuseae, and Olyreae diverging sequentially from the lineage that includes the PACC clade as sister to a clade in which Brachyelytrum is sister to Pooideae.
There is a dichotomy in the latter group, with one of the two sister groups consisting of a monophyletic association of Lithachne, Olyra, and all sampled elements of Bambuseae, and the other consisting of Oryzeae as sister of a clade in which Ehrharta is sister of a group that includes Baloskion and all remaining grasses (i.
Within the latter group there is a sister-group relationship between two clades, the first including a monophyletic grouping of Lithachne and Olyra as sister to a monophyletic grouping of all elements of Bambuseae, the second including a monophyletic grouping of Oryza and Leersia as sister to a monophyletic grouping of all remaining grasses.
The four other elements within the unresolved clade that is sister to Pharus are Eremitis, Ehrhartoideae, Olyreae, and Bambuseae.
Olyreae sister of the clade that includes Brachyelytrum, Pooideae, and the PACC clade, with Bambuseae sister of that clade, Eremitis sister of that clade, and Ehrhartoideae sister of that clade, vs.
Thus the monophyletic grouping of Brachyelytrum plus Pooideae is associated in all cases with a pectinate structure in which the divergence of Ehrhartoideae immediately follows the divergence of Pharus, and is itself followed by divergence of the following taxa in sequence: Eremitis, Bambuseae, Olyreae, and the PACC clade from a monophyletic grouping of Brachyelytrum plus Pooideae [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURES 1, 4A OMITTED].
Bambuseae, Olyreae, and Oryzeae also are resolved by all three analyses, while Ehrhartoideae (i.
Bambuseae are the next most closely related group, and the tree obtained by implied-weighting differs from other trees in uniting Pharus and Eremitis as sister taxa that together constitute a clade that is the next most closely related group.