16) Geoffrey Benjamin includes aboriginal Malay cultures within 'Malayic', a type of societal grouping that includes Malays and certain Austronesian, as well as Austro-Asiatic, speaking tribal groups in Malaysia/Indonesia, and is characterised by 'collecting (fused with horticulture).
On this basis, southern tribal peoples can be viewed as blending Austro-Asiatic and Austronesian ancestry and culture, as well as, more recently, Chinese.
The retention on the peninsula of Austro-Asiatic languages in the face of Austronesian expansion (26) can most simply be explained by the prior establishment, dating back to 2,000 BCE, of Mon-Khmer speaking agricultural societies on the peninsula.
68) The peninsula's status as the last outpost of non-Austronesian peoples in western insular Southeast Asia suggests that Austro-Asiatic speakers there once had a population large enough to withstand outsiders and maintain their distinctive identities.
The Semelai language has a number of Austro-Asiatic words related to swiddening and rice.
Of India's 4 major language families, Indo-European and Dravidian languages are spoken in the northern and southern parts of the subcontinent, respectively (18); Tibeto-Burman speakers, concentrated in the northern and northeastern parts of the country, are supposed to have immigrated to India from Burma (now, Myanmar) and Tibet (19); and Austro-Asiatic
speakers are exclusively tribes and are dispersed mostly in the central and eastern parts of the country.
Subbarao), and the Austro-Asiatic
language Juang (Manideepa Patnaik and K.
The Sanskrit word for shovel is langala and is related to the word for phallus, langula; the Austro-Asiatic
languages use the same word for phallus and shovel; and Rabelais calls the phallus 'nature's ploughman.
According to anthropologists, the Bondas are descendents of the Austro-Asiatic
tribes, the original inhabitants of Jeypore hills in Orissa.
Singh, Kubchandani, Hasnain) and contact/convergence (Mohanty, Israel, Abbi) - then followed by the linguistic designations Indo-Aryan (Zoller), Dravidian (Andronov, Pilot-Raichoor, Mahapatra), Austro-Asiatic