Kleine (1967) separated four hepatopancreatic fractions with esterase activity from the crayfish Astacus astacus; the pH optima of these enzymes were between 8 and 9.
For example, Kleine (1966) described the gastric juice of the crayfish Astacus astacus as being devoid of lipolytic activity but reported high lipolytic activity in an extract of hepatopancreas.
A revision of the Astacidae, Part I: The genera Cambarus and Astacus
Encapsulation of foreign particles in vitro by separated blood cells from crayfish, Astacus
Induction of degranulation and lysis of haemocytes in the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus
by components of the prophenoloxidase activating system in vitro.
Vesicles were also observed in F-cells of the crayfish Astacus astacus
after artificial draining of gastric juice (Vogt et al.
Soderhall and Unestam (1979) found the mechanisms of the proPO system of Astacus astacus
, triggered by invasive agents (bacterium, fungus, etc.
The cytotoxic reaction of hemocytes from the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus