5 -- Arenaria serpyllifolia (thyme-leave -- -- -- sandwort) Arisaema dracontium (green dragon) * -- -- -- Arisaema triphyllum -- -- -- (jack-in-the-pulpit) * Asarum canadense
(wild ginger) * -- -- -- Asclepias exaltata (poke milkweed) * -- -- -- Asclepias incarnata (swamp milkweed) * 2.
Holocene migration of Asarum canadense and other woodland herbs
Because of the lack of fossil pollen data for most woodland herbs, the minimum distance that Asarum canadense moved since the glacial maximum 16 000 yr ago is best estimated from the pollen record for trees that presently occupy the same habitats as Asarum.
Seed predation experiments here were conducted along gentle slopes where patches of Asarum canadense are found, and not in the floodplain forest.
Mature Asarum canadense fruits were collected from 128 marked fruiting ramets (n = 64 in each study site) in early to mid-Jun.
Composition of the essential oil from Asarum canadense
Common spring and early summer flowering forbs include Allium burdickii, Arisaema triphyllum, Asarum canadense
, Cardamine concatenata, C.
Geum canadense, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Viola striata, and Asarum canadense (Fig.
Sanicula gregaria, Asarum canadense, and Osmorhiza longistylis dominated the herbaceous layer during spring and early summer (Fig.
Ground plants include Agrimonia pubescens, Alliaria petiolata, Allium tricoccum, A nemonella thalictroides, Arisaema triphyllum, Asarum canadense
, Asplenium platyneuron, Aster cordifolius, A.
Dominant late spring to early summer species are Aplectrum hyemale, Arisaema triphyllum, Asarum canadense
, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Elymus hystrix, Galium aparine, G.