See Arctic Environmental Protection Strategy, June 14, 1991, 30 I.
The Arctic Council is established as a high level forum to:
a) provide a means for promoting cooperation, coordination and interaction among the Arctic States, with the involvement of the Arctic indigenous communities and other Arctic inhabitants on common Arctic issues, in particular issues of sustainable development and environmental protection in the Arctic.
These are the Arctic Athabaskan Council (AAC); Aleut International Association (A1A); Gwich'in Council International (GCI); Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC); Russian Association of Indigenous Peoples of the North (RAIPON); and Saami Council (SC).
The new standing Secretariat of the Arctic Council will be located in Tromso, Norway.
id=105240, is the first legally binding agreement negotiated under the auspices of the Arctic Council.
Schofield, supra note 13, at 44 (noting that the four littoral Arctic countries apart from the United States have ratified the treaty, but that the United States considers the treaty to be customary international law).
There are several disputed boundaries between the Arctic nations.
Despite present good relations among Arctic nations, recent media attention paints the area as a source of potential international conflict as countries flex their muscles and seek to identify portions of the region to which they can lay claim.
The legal regime applicable in the Arctic is the customary international law as reflected in the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
29) Unfortunately, the United States is the only Arctic nation that has not joined UNCLOS, despite support from President Barack Obama and the Bush and Clinton administrations.
There is some concern in Japan that a renewed Arctic emphasis by the U.
The Navy understands the wide range of security considerations in the Arctic region and that the effects of climate change in the Arctic will influence the geostrategic landscape.
Navy has been operating in the Arctic for nearly a century, beginning with Admiral Richard E.
The Navy's Arctic Submarine Laboratory leads the ICEX series, Arctic research-and-development missions whose activities include temporary Arctic ice camps on the edge of the perennial ice.