may have been part of the Sea Peoples that had destroyed the Late Bronze Age West but they also may have migrated from the Syrian and Arabian deserts in the period of Carchemian ascendancy that straddled the Bronze Age and early Iron Age periods.
God then orders him to take his family and move to Canaan, presumably to eliminate the influence Aramaean
paganism is having on them.
The successive waves of migration were by Akkadians (5,000 years ago), Amorites (4,000 years ago), Aramaeans
(about 3,000 years ago), and Arabs (in the seventh century).
He concedes uncertainty about discerning policies based on "self-conscious" ethnicity, as with the Aramaeans
, for example.
Lasting hegemonic rule in the region was only made possible by massive cultural shifts: first Assyria broke the resistance of the fractious Aramaeans
to imperial rule, then it virtually annihilated the Elamites in a military campaign during Assyria's final decline.
Malamat, The Aramaeans
, in Peoples of Old Testament Times 134, 141-47 (D.
Through the influence of the Aramaeans
, who borrowed the Babylonian pronunciation Bel, the god ultimately became known as the Greek Belos, identified with Zeus.
At the same time many Persians and persianized Aramaeans
received positions as 'secretaries' or civil servants.
The Canaanites, Aramaeans
, Phoenicians, and Philistines are given no treatment.
In sections on place, daily practice, and power, they consider such topics as movement across the landscape and residential stability in the southern Levantine Early Bronze Age; subsistence actions at Catalhoyuk; the practice of decorating Late Neolithic pottery in northern Mesopotamia; whether early Islamic pottery indicates a revolution in diet and dining habits; Assyrians, Aramaeans
, and the indigenous peoples of Iron Age southeastern Anatolia; and the Hittite state.
And he [Ahaziah] went with Joram ben-Ahab to war with Hazael, King of Aram, at Ramoth-gilead, and the Aramaeans
1116), and soon made a reputation as a great conqueror; his first campaign subdued the Moschi, who had overrun some Assyrian provinces along the upper Euphrates; he next conquered Commagene (region between the Toros Daglari and the Euphrates, now southeastern Turkey) and then invaded Cappadocia (central Turkey), driving out the Hittites; next he raided into the Kurdish mountains to the north (1115-1112); he attacked Comana (exact site unknown) in Cappadocia, and left an account of his victories on a copper plate inside a fortress he built to guard his new conquests (1111); he later undertook campaigns against the Aramaeans
in northern Syria; thrice he advanced as far as the sources of the Tigris (1110-1100); he died about 1093.
This is particularly so when dealing with the Aramaeans
of Iron Age Syria, concerning whom many new and exciting finds have been revealed in the last few years.
The narrative turns on foreign conquests recorded in biblical and Assyrian texts, the latter those of the probable assailants, but without physical remains confirming or bolstering either Aramaeans
or Assyrians as the perpetrators.
Morrow, "The Sefire Treaty Stipulations and the Meso-potamian Treaty Tradition," in The World of the Aramaeans
III: Studies in Language and Literature in Honour of Paul-Eugene Dion, ed.