This Ahab had done recently in Aramaean
Wars I and II, and he would soon do so again in Aramaean
War III, but it is not known whether he also took the field in person at Qarqara.
The labor of love, undertaken by a small technical team, was financed by the banking family of Max von Oppenheim, the archeologist who first discovered the Aramaean
palace of Tell Halaf shortly before the outbreak of World War I in an area today located in northern Syria, on the border with Turkey.
What would seem to work against this answer is Laban, who would have had to marry in for his daughters to be acceptable as wives for Jacob, yet he and his father are described as Aramaeans
, not Hebrews.
The narrative turns on foreign conquests recorded in biblical and Assyrian texts, the latter those of the probable assailants, but without physical remains confirming or bolstering either Aramaeans
or Assyrians as the perpetrators.
Part II presents the evidence for the history of the Neo-Hittite kingdoms (in detail) and the Aramaean
and other Iron Age Near Eastern states (in overview) and is intended as a reference guide for part III.
Masetti-Rouault briefly introduces the difficulties that have beset studies of the beginning of the Iron Age in the Middle Euphrates region, a time when many of the powers of the preceding Late Bronze Age (the Hittite empire, the Mitannian kingdom, the Egyptian New Kingdom, and the Middle Assyrian kingdom) were eclipsed and the Aramaeans
were entering the historical scene throughout the Levant and across north Mesopotamia.
The volumes of Donner and Rollig on Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions include lists of Canaanite and Aramaean
names (1964: 45-52, 53-56), and Sivan's book includes an investigation of West Semitic names in Bronze Age sources from Canaan and Syria (1984).
On the So-Called Aramaean
"Siege Trench" in Tell es-Safi.
These include Wicke's analysis of the "roundcheeked and ringletted" ivories, Gubel's work on Phoenician and Aramaean
bridle-harness decoration, and Rehm's study of the style of furniture shown in Neo-Assyrian palace reliefs.
The foundation of the Aramaean
settlement at Syene is more difficult to date, but based on information especially from the Papyrus Amherst 63 (the unique Aramaic text in Demotic script) Porten finds their origins to have been Arash/Rash (a land between Babylonia and Elam), as well as southern Syria (Bit Agusi and Hamath), with a migration to Samaria in the days of Assurbanipal before they came to Egypt.
These consist of the Mesopotamian gate/dock, the Phoenician "port of trade," the Greco-Hellenistic agora, the Roman forum, the Palmyrene commercial caravan, the Aramaean
suqa, the Sasanian waz.
Starting from the third millennium BC, Arab tribes of the Arabian Peninsula: Acadians, the Amorites, Aramaeans
, the Nabataeans, Elsafa n and Ghassanids came and settled in Gharia and other areas.
After the collapse of the Hittite Empire in about 1200 BC, it came under Assyrian influence and was settled by Aramaeans
, speakers of Aramaic.
There are royal inscriptions found of other neighbors of Israel, such as the Aramaeans
and the Phoenicians.
At the same time many Persians and persianized Aramaeans
received positions as 'secretaries' or civil servants.