Otoliths at earlier juvenile stages generally exhibit a more pleisomorphic condition, while apomorphic
characters evolve only in later developmental stages (Nolf 1985; Schwarzhans 1999).
beniensis, from the rio Madeira drainage; Owiyeye is diagnosed by the absence of dermosphenotic, a derived pattern of frontal squamation, and a colour pattern of the mandibular region, and includes species from the Amazonas and Orinoco river basins; Melanorivulus is diagnosed by an apomorphic
morphology of preopercle, and derived colour patterns of male postorbital region and female unpaired fins, and includes species from southern Amazonian tributaries, Parana-Paraguay river system, and Parnaiba and Sao Francisco river basins.
Characters were polarized as to the plesiomorphic (0 = primitive) or apomorphic
(1, 2, etc = derived) states, based on the methodology of outgroup comparisons (Maddison et al.
1981; Williams, 1978), these data suggest that chromosomal rearrangements following fusion events may have been gradual, but were largely apomorphic
The absence of a humeral spot in closer outgroups to rivulids suggests that the presence of this spot is apomorphic
for some rivulid taxa (Costa 19986).
This may be an apomorphic
tendency for malvids or malvids plus the COM clade (Endress & Matthews, 2006), if both together should turn out to form a clade (Endress & Matthews, 2006; Zhu et al.
hispidus revealed five apomorphic
substitutions in the population from Yuma County.
Indeed, Bickel (1996: 1168) considered Asyndetus and Cryptophleps as sister taxa based on apomorphic
wing characters: "Costa ends at [R.
They also pointed out that a short posterior lobe of the male surstylus and a shallow V-shaped emargination of male sternite 5 are plesiomorphic and a deep V-shaped emargination of male sternite 5 is apomorphic
For Andersen's Character 3 (form of hairs on body), Bacillometra as defined herein exhibits an apomorphic
condition that would place it in the Hydrometrinae.
In that case, the Uropygi-synapomorphy hypothesis would depend on determining which shape of this structure is apomorphic
Comparison with other alvinocaridid taxa clearly suggests that the possession of suboperculiform antennae and the reduction of the rostrum are apomorphic
We feel that the morphology of plethodontid vertebrae is not understood well enough at present to conduct an apomorphic
approach to identifications.
This feature has long been considered as apomorphic
for Neanderthal juveniles.
The unusual condition of the ectopterygoid and endopterygoid of Leptophilypnion may well be uniquely derived or apomorphic
characters, and thus unhelpful in determining its phyletic relationships.