In addition, the scarcity of longterm field observations on individual mating pairs has led to a subjective and often inconsistent characterization of the apogonid mating patterns (Va-gelli 2011).
Quinca mirifica is the first described apogonid displaying a very conspicuous ephemeral sexual dichromatism (males).
Most apogonids inhabit shallow tropical coral reefs.
Apogonids occur in a variety of habitats, from mangroves to drop-off zones, sea grass beds, spur and groove sections, and in sandy and rubble patches, but typically, particular species or small group of species are restricted to narrow ecological zones (Vagelli 2011).
Apogonids show important variability in social behaviors and in the reproductive process, including degree of gregariousness, territoriality; length of pair bonding, courtship displays, post-mating levels of mate fidelity, and length of embryo incubation (Vagelli 2011).
during his extensive field surveys and taxonomic work in Apogonidae, Allen did not observe apogonids displaying color changes [Allen, per.
Among the approximately 20 apogonids whose nuptial and mating behaviors have been observed, color change was not present in Ostorhinchus cyanosoma (Bleeker 1853) (Thresher 1984, per.
Reproduction in Quinca mirifica involved transient pair formation, and a series of courtship displays and mating behaviors similar to those described in other apogonids, including side-by-side swimming and trembling, nuzzling, warping, and mouth-opening by the male (Kuwamura 1983, 1985, Vagelli 1999).
solitary) and reproductive behavior (length of pair formation) among several apogonids he studied.
Aspects of the reproduction of apogonids are discussed in Chapter 7 with a comprehensive table (7.
Randall (2005) describing a number of cases of mimicry for apogonids.
The idea that an ancestor to gobioids, kurtids and apogonids originated somewhere on the Australian-New Guinea landmass in freshwater is new.
A few other species of apogonids have, or variably have, nine visible dorsal spines, deeply notched as VIII-I,9, the eighth spine much reduced in length: Foa albimaculosa (Kailola, 1976), Apogonichthyoides chrysurus (Ogilby, 1889), Holapogon maximus (Boulenger, 1888), Lepidamia species, Neamia octospina Smith & Radcliffe in Radcliffe, 1912), Vincentia badia Allen, 1987, V.
A research fellowship from the Australian Museum, Sydney aided research on apogonids through Mote Marine Laboratory.