In order to save the colorless combinations prevailed in the Theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) of quarks and antiquarks
in their combinations when binding, we devise the following formula:
In this formulation, quarks and antiquarks
sit at points in a finite, four-dimensional lattice, and gluons correspond to the links between these points.
The proton remnant also interacts with extra quarks and antiquarks
to produce another jet of subatomic particles.
For example, like most other groups studying QCD, they used a so-called lattice formulation of the theory, in which each point, or node, within the lattice corresponds to a particular set of quark and antiquark
positions and a given geometry for the force field acting on the particles.
For each type of quark there exists a corresponding antiquark
Moreover, in addition to the "up" and "down" valence quarks, "strange" quark and antiquark
pairs seem to play an important role within the proton.
From what we know, if you tried to put a set of quarks or antiquarks
together you couldn't build these particles," he added.
If it is created, an antiproton consisting of three antiquarks
of the same flavor and color must also be created.
It seems that a random fluctuation, a broken symmetry, led to matter's having the slightest edge - a billion and one quarks for every billion antiquarks
In the past 2 years, evidence has quickly mounted for the existence of pentaquarks, never-before-seen subatomic particles theoretically composed of five quarks or antiquarks
, which are fundamental constituents of matter.
have been measured directly in the proton [15, see p.
Particles called baryons, such as protons and neutrons, contain three quarks or antiquarks
One can show that this colorless state exists for three combinations of quark states only: (1) the quark-antiquark
pair with color and anticolor, (2) three quarks, or (3) three antiquarks
, with the appropriate linear combinations of colors or anticolors.
Quarks and antiquarks
also hold electric charges but they are fractional, [+ or -]e/3 or [+ or -] 2e/3, where e = 1.
Until recently, quarks and antiquarks
were observed only in groups of twos or threes.