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The proteasome subunits ( PSMB ) and transporter associated with antigen processing ( TAP ) genes are responsible for immune activity and protein degradation in MHC Class I pathway.
This type of archaeosomes limits phagolysosomal antigen processing and enhances MHC class 1 presentation (18).
This edition has expanded discussion of pathogen and danger-associated molecular patterns and lymphocyte trafficking; a new section on dendritic cells and their role in antigen processing including cross-presentation; updated sections on B-Cell and NK receptors; the latest findings on T-cell subsets; new information on NK and cytotoxic T-cell killing mechanisms; and more on the effects of aging on immune responses.
The reasons for the low response rates are thought to be because of several factors, which include low immunogenicity and tolerance to tumour-associated antigens, immunosuppressive microenvironments and defects in the cellular machinery for antigen processing and recognition.
That cumulative research led them to narrow their search to five essential and well-described proteins involved in antigen processing by immune system cells.
Using DNA microarrays of 39,000 transcripts, the analyses showed a significant increase in genes involved in antigen processing and presentation, apoptosis and innate immunity pathways.
In this scenario, it can be anticipated that a crucial role is played by age-related structural and functional alterations and modifications of proteasomes and immunoproteasomes, the last being a key component of antigen processing and MHC class I antigen presentation.