1]-antagonist diphenhydramine, the anticholinergic agent
atropine, the glucocorticosteroid budesonide, or the bradykinin [B.
, a class of bronchodilators, have proven to be of particular value in the treatment of COPD since vagal cholinergic tone appears to be the only reversible component of airway narrowing (4).
Hays LL: The Frey syndrome: a review and double blind evaluation of the topical use of a new anticholinergic agent
However, other anticholinergic agents
such as atropine have been used in the past to achieve the desired pulmonary effect.
For reliever therapy, the primary bronchodilators are the short-acting beta-agonists (SABA), although anticholinergic agents
may be suitable for older adults, for those intolerant of SABA, and for patients with nocturnal or intrinsic asthma.
Furthermore, new-generation anticholinergic agents
, such as darifenacin and solifenacin, are selective for the M3 receptor and thus offer the potential of reduced side-effects.
Some opioid analgesics alone (in particular meperidine and propoxyphene, no longer manufactured) or in combination with anticholinergic agents
(some cough and cold preparations, the antidiarrheal agent diphenoxylate/atropine) do not result in miosis, but instead cause mydriasis (enlarged pupils), perhaps based on competing anticholinergic activity.
Cervical dystonia can be treated with botulinum toxin therapy, oral medications such as anticholinergic agents
and muscle relaxants, or surgery.
However, dependent on etiological factors, patients require treatments such as CISC and anticholinergic agents
in the postoperative period.
salbutamol 400-800 [micro]g; terbutaline 500-1 000 [micro]g; fenoterol 200-400 [micro]g) and anticholinergic agents
(ipratropium bromide 80 [micro]g) may be given by pressured metered dose inhaler and spacer, or by jet nebulisation (salbutamol 2.
And while physostigmine is the standard antidote for overdoses involving pure anticholinergic agents
, it is contraindicated in TCA overdoses because of several case reports of asystolic cardiac arrest.
Although anticholinergic agents
have been the first-line treatment for OAB for many years, the efficacious pharmacologic management of this condition has been compromised by concerns regarding tolerability.
Drug therapy includes anticholinergic agents
, quaternary ammonium compounds, and selectiveM3-receptorantagonists.
such as oxybutynin, oxytrol, tolterodine, and solifenacin succinate are often used to inhibit detrusor muscle contraction.
5] One is to prescribe drug therapy with systemic and topical anticholinergic agents
to diminish sweat gland function.