Stone, "The Declining Prevalence of Anencephalus
and Spina Bifida: Its Nature, Causes and Implications," Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 29:4 (August 1987), 541-49; Elwood and Elwood, Epidemiology, 107-19 (note 15).
005 defects including neural tube defects Anencephalus High vs.
The meta-analyses showed some excess of risk for anencephalus and spina bifida, but it was not statistically significant.
Six major CNS defects were reported: one case of spina bifida, two anencephalus
cases, two hydrocephalus cases, and one case of multiple congenital anomalies.
The following birth anomalies were included in the combined categories, based on organ system classification, but were not analyzed as single categories due to low number of observations: anencephalus
, spina bifida/meningocele, hydrocephalus, microcephalus, rectal atresia/stenosis, tracheo-esophageal fistula, omphalocele, other gastrointestinal anomalies, renal agenesis, diaphragmatic hernia.