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American toads in this region are referred to the subspecies B.
Eastern American Toads are ubiquitous in their choice of terrestrial habitats as long as those habitats include still, shallow bodies of water where toads can breed, moist hiding places, and insects and other small invertebrates upon which they feed (Conant and Collins 1998).
These toads are easily confused with the American toad, to which they are closely related, but the parotid gland of the Canadian toad is larger both in length and width.
To investigate longer-term (~ 30 days) exposure of amphibians to low pesticide levels, we exposed tadpoles of four species of frogs--spring peepers (Pseudacris cructfer), American toads (Bulb americanus), green frogs (Rana elamitans), and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica)--at early and late developmental stages to low concentrations of a commercial preparation of atrazine (3, 30, or 100 ppb; the U.
To investigate long-term exposure of amphibians to low pesticide concentrations, we exposed four local species of frogs, spring peepers (Pseudacris crucifer), American toads (Bufo americanus), green frogs (Rana clamitans), and wood frogs (Rana sylvatica), at early (Gosner stages 25-27; Gosner 1960) and late (stages 29-36) developmental stages to low concentrations of atrazine (3, 30, or 100 ppb).
Smaller animals (spring peepers, American toads, and early-stage green frogs) were kept in 120 mL polypropylene cups in 100 mL dechlorinated water (with appropriate treatment), whereas larger animals (late wood frogs and late green frogs) were kept in 750 mL high-density polyethylene cups in 500 mL dechlorinated water.
Sample size for each treatment was as follows: early spring peepers [control (C) = 111, low (L) = 112, medium (M) = 101, high (H) = 106], late spring peepers (C = 14, L = 20, M = 21, H = 19), early American toads (C = 30, L = 27, M = 30, H = 30), late American toads (C = 6, L = 7, M = 7, H = 7), early green frogs (C = 15, L = 15, M = 15, H = 15), late green frogs (C = 15, L = 15, M = 15, H = 15), late wood frogs (C = 8, L= 10, M= 10, H = 10).
This survivorship pattern was seen for early American toads and for both early and late stages of spring peepers and green frogs (Figure 1).
For early American toads (Figure 1C), survivorship at medium and high atrazine concentrations was not significantly different (p = 0.
crucifer), American toads (Bufo americanus), and green frogs (Rana clamitans), comprised 74% of the frog populations encountered, while smallmouth salamanders (Ambystoma texanum), tiger salamanders (A.
Likewise, Green found infections in several Maryland specimens of the common American toad.
3: The Eastern United States" presents fascinating information about the habits of white-tailed deer, black widow spiders, bobcats, giant swallowtail butterflies, ant lions, walking sticks, spotted salamanders, river otters, American toads, and many more eastern U.
The effect of soil composition and hydration on the bioavailability and toxicity of cadmium to hibernating juvenile American toads.
For green tree frogs, spotted turtles, and American toads, the new woods provide cover and small depressions, which fill with water just in time for breeding season.
Northern leopard frogs, American toads, spring peepers, long-toed salamanders, red-legged frogs--all are appearing with everything from one leg, to three legs, to no eyes.
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