The eight focal species included Pied-billed Grebe (Podilymbus podiceps), American Bittern
, Least Bittern, King Rail (Rallus elegans), Virginia Rail (Rallus limicola), Sora, Common Gallinule (Gallinula chloropus), and American Coot (Fulica americana).
A number of potential predator species were observed (Black-Crowned Night Herons, American Bitterns
, Great Blue Herons, Great Egrets, Turtles and Bullfrogs) but the vast majority were Little Green Herons.
Many species of wading birds are known predators of common snapping turtles, including Great Blue Herons (Ardea herodias), Great Egrets (Ardea alba), and American Bitterns
(Botaurus lentiginosus; Ernst and Lovich 2009).
At first glance immature black-crowns resemble American bitterns
, another of Pennsylvania's endangered species.
Graceful egrets and herons now haunt the lake's marshes and shores, along with more elusive shorebirds such as American bitterns
, whose call sounds like a giant frog croaking.
We conducted 572 surveys at 143 survey points on 16 marshes and recorded 663 detections of target species: 213 Virginia Rails (32%), 179 American Bitterns
(27%), 153 Pied-billed Grebes (23%), 76 Least Bitterns (12%), and 42 Soras (6%).