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3] exposure and remodeling of the distal airways, including an increase in nonciliated cell mass and volume fraction in terminal bronchioles and bronchiolarization of the alveolar duct (Plopper et al.
44) Histologically, organizing pneumonia is characterized by plugs of granulation tissue, composed of fibroblasts within a myxoid or edematous stroma, which are located within bronchiolar lumens, alveolar ducts, and associated alveolar airspaces (Figure 9).
Lying within the bronchiolar lumen and also within adjacent alveolar ducts and alveoli, there are collections of macrophages containing finely granular brown cytoplasmic pigment (Figure 10).
For example, in some patients, especially heavy smokers, anthracotic pigment may be identified along alveolar ducts and respiratory bronchioles; however, there is typically less pigment deposition and less airway fibrosis than in patients with mineral dust-associated bronchiolitic diseases.
Some cases of organizing DAD may, however, contain comparatively prominent intraalveolar or alveolar duct fibrosis and therefore, OP may arise in the histologic differential diagnosis.
At this single exposure concentration, F344 rats retain particles of diesel soot and CD primarily within macrophages located within the lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli.
One broader anatomic compartment was referred to as parenchymal lumens and consisted of lumens of alveolar ducts and alveoli in rats and lumens of respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, and alveoli in humans.
Nine to 43% of the particulate material was in the parenchymal lumens in the human lungs, and almost all of this material was in the lumens of alveoli and alveolar ducts.
In all three groups of rats, 82-85% of the retained particulate material was located in the alveolar and alveolar duct lumens, primarily in macrophages.
Models of particle (aerosol) deposition have demonstrated the importance of respiratory bronchiole and alveolar duct structures in particle deposition (26-29).