But it is Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie, whose Montaillou (1978) inaugurated the tradition of filling the void of sure knowledge about the Albigensians
with extraordinarily detailed sociological inventories, who may have provided a foundation for the most useful theory of the origin of Cathar heterodoxies.
114, who finds Adolf's equation of the personages and events of the Albigensian
Crusade with those of Perlesvaus unconvincing.
12, 1213, the Marian prayer brought about the defeat of the Albigensians
and saw the first shrine built to Our Lady of Victory.
Their heretical religion continued to spread, bringing the Bogumils to Bulgaria and to Bosnia (to say nothing of the Albigensians
, the Cathars in France).
68) Jews, Waldensians, Albigensians
, and other "heretics" stood beside "witches," "lepers," and "sodomites" as medieval groups--whether official ones (like the medieval Inquistion) or popular mobs (sometimes restrained by ecclesiastical authorities)--produced a "persecuting society.
The Inquisition, though eventually using the wrong methods, fought for the preservation of truth against groups such as the Albigensians
and Cathars who threatened truth by spreading the views that marriage and sexual relations are evil
denied the incarnation of Christ, believing that divinity had never stooped to traffic in human flesh.
However, as Innocent III discovered in his campaign against the Albigensians
, sometimes more drastic steps appeared to be necessary.
Finally, in the pre-Constantine period, a bridge between Gnosticism and such later movements as the Bogomils and Albigensians
, there was Manicheanism, one of the last Eastern movements to permeate the West.
Lateran IV (1215), against the Albigensians
, affirmed the eternity of heaven and hell.
From the latter half of the twelfth century onwards, the Church in Northern Italy and Southern France was plagued by the growth of revolutionary Messianists such as the Albigensians
, who declared marriage to be evil and the work of the devil.
It was given to the Church by Saint Dominic who had received it from the Blessed Virgin as a powerful means of converting the Albigensians
and other sinners.
In the twelfth century, she was openly rejected by the Albigensians
, who claimed that the physical world was the creation of Satan rather than that of a benevolent God.
They lived near where the Albigensians
, also known as Cathars, would be slaughtered by order of Pope Innocent III less than 100 years later.
111) Large communities of heretical dissenters, such as the Albigensians
, might find themselves the target of a domestic Crusade.