As is shown by the horrifying Albigensian
Crusade and its successors, however, this understanding of orthodoxy as innovation is not always the majority view of those in power.
They lived near where the Albigensians
, also known as Cathars, would be slaughtered by order of Pope Innocent III less than 100 years later.
As a result, some 10,000 God-fearing knights of Europe mustered in Lyon, and thus began a twenty-year campaign in which 100,000 to 200,000 Albigensian
men, women, and children were burned at the stake, tied and quartered, put on the rack, simply slaughtered, or otherwise violently put to death.
Pegg, Mark Gregory, A Most Holy War: The Albigensian
Crusade and the Battle for Christendom.
Around and through the story of Elinor is the larger story of the Albigensian
Crusade, which was fought from 1209-1229.
The Lions of Al-Rassan (1995), in a similar vein, re-imagined the legend of the Cid, just as A Song for Arbonne (1992) did for the Albigensian
Crusade, The Sarantine Mosaic (1998 and 2000) for the Byzantine Empire, and The Last Light of the Sun (2004) for the Viking invasions of Britain.
Heretics and the renaissance: the Albigensian
papermakers and watermarks.
This was the last stronghold of Cathar resistance during the 13th century Albigensian
crusade, holding out against the Vatican's armies until 1255.
Gnosticism emerged in Late Antiquity, a this-worldly derailment of spirituality, which would reappear in the form of Albigensian
Puritanism in the thirteenth century; Gottfried makes one or two passing references to the Cathars.
movement, which taught that obedience to civil rulers is contrary to Christian faith, was fresh in Aquinas's mind.
The word and its cognates bougrerie/bougresse came to mean heretical, as applied, for example, to the Albigensian
heresy in late medieval France.
Extrapolating from historical events that range from Captain Cook's demise in Hawaii and the Rwandan conflict between the Hutus and the Tutsis to the Albigensian
heresy and the Inquisition, Wexler asserts that "differences in belief systems can .
2)--he focuses on six actual and horrible examples: the 13th century Albigensian
Crusade against the Cathars, Robespierre's terror during the French revolution, the Nazi Franz Stangl's participation in the murder of almost one million victims at Treblinka, the murders by Charles Manson and his "family" in 1969, the "dirty war" of the Argentine military dictatorship in the late 1970s, and the psychopath John Allen's crime spree earlier in the 1970s.
95) reveals the westward push of European traders through the south in the mid-1800s, and how forts were developed to protect their interests, while Marcus Cowper's CATHAR CASTLES: FORTRESSES OF THE ALBIGENSIAN
CRUSADE 1209-1300 (1846030668, $16.
The first half of The Roots of Evil is a sober examination of what Kekes takes to be six paradigmatic cases of "serious, excessive, malevolent, and inexcusable harm": the Albigensian
Crusade, the French Revolution's Reign of Terror, the Nazi death camp at Treblinka, the Manson family murders of the 1960s, the Argentine "dirty war" of the late 1970s, and the wanton exploits recorded by the psychopath John Allen in 1975.