Macular scarring/hole, optic neuropathy, RD, choroidal haemorrhage, globe perforation, central corneal opacity, endophthalmitis and the presence of afferent pupillary defect
have been identified as poor prognostic factors in ocular war injuries.
66% of cases with relative afferent pupillary defect
had grade 4 or worse visual acuity.
The presence or absence of a relative afferent pupillary defect
(RAPD) and examining for signs of rubeotic vessels on the iris are essential when assessing these patients.
Main outcome measures were visual acuity, globe rupture, endophthalmitis, perforating injury, retinal detachment and afferent pupillary defect
The Ocular Trauma Score (OTS) (4) was first published in 2002 and it estimates visual function six months after the trauma by assigning a score according to the initial visual acuity and then subtracting another score according to the presence of eyeball rupture, endophthalmitis, ocular perforation, retinal detachment and afferent pupillary defect
On physical examination, the visual acuity was 20/20 in both eyes and there was no relative afferent pupillary defect
Pupils were equally round and reactive to light with a relative afferent pupillary defect
in her left eye.
Bullous retinal detachment with total afferent pupillary defect
Pupillography of relative afferent pupillary defect
contralateral to monocular mature cataract.
The most typical clinical presentation of PION consists of acute visual loss, along with afferent pupillary defect
, and the remarkable absence of ocular pain or headache.
All patients were specially checked for chemosis, tortuosity and dilatation of conjunctival vessels, exposure keratopathy, anterior chamber depth, pupillary size, reaction including Relative Afferent Pupillary Defect
(RAPD), glaucoma, vitreous haemorrhage, papilloedema/optic atrophy, status of the retinal vessels, extraocular muscle involvement, cranial nerve palsies.
The affected eye may have reduced intraocular pressure or a relative afferent pupillary defect
Her visual acuity in both eyes was 20/25, and her pupils were symmetric and reactive to light; there was no relative afferent pupillary defect
In patients with CRAO, an eye exam show profoundly decreased visual acuity, and the swinging light test (see "Use this mnemonic to ensure a comprehensive eye exam" on page 348) will reveal a relative afferent pupillary defect
Initial visual acuity of NPL or PL+, the presence of relative afferent pupillary defect
(RAPD), central corneal opacity, retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, macular scarring and optic atrophy were other factors associated with poor final visual outcome.