Exotic natural enemies of Adelges tsugae and their prospect for biological control.
Life cycle of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand, in the Great Smoky Mountains National Park NAFIWC, Asheville, North Carolina.
Reshaping the ecology of invading populations of hemlock wooly adelgid, Adelges tsugae (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in eastern North America.
Establishing Pseudoscymnus tsugae Sasaji and McClure (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) for biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Homoptera: Adelgidae), in the eastern United States.
This diaspidid often co-exists with the exotic hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges
tsugae Armand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), throughout the northern United States (McClure 2002), where they cause extensive damage to eastern hemlock and threaten to disrupt forest composition.