While calcium ionophore treatment was more effective than heparin or caffeine in inducing the acrosome reaction
in goat sperm in vitro (Pereira et al.
On the other hand, heparin can induce the acrosome reaction
in bovine spermatozoa (Handrow et al.
Capacitation-associated changes in protein-tyrosine-phosphorylation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction
in guinea pig sperm.
Capacitation involves several changes, occurring in both the sperm head and tail that lead to the release of the acrosomal content (called acrosome reaction
, AR) (Yanagimachi, 1994) and to the acquisition of a distinct type of motility known as hyperactivation (Si and Okuno, 1999).
Normal sperm production and sperm quality, which include motility, capacitation, acrosome reaction
, egg penetration and decondensation of sperm head, are essential processes necessary to achieve fertilization.
Sperm capacitation is enhanced by the uterine environment and hormones, which completes the acrosome reaction
(Phelps et al.
KEY WORDS: abalone, Haliotis asinina, egg jelly coat, vitelline envelope, acrosome reaction
Magnetic-activated cell sorting for sperm preparation reduces spermatozoa with apoptotic markers and improves the acrosome reaction
in couples with unexplained infertility.
HP was the most potent GAG for enhancing sperm motility and inducing the acrosome reaction
The sperm acrosoreal vesicle then disappeared and an acrosome reaction
was observed at 1 min from the start.
Moreover, POEC and its conditioned medium efficiently increased the in vitro acrosome reaction
of frozen-thawed bovine spermatozoa (23).
Lipid peroxidation has been suggested as the cause of abnormal acrosome reaction
and loss of membrane fluidity, culminating in a loss of fertilizing potential of spermatozoa (Verma and Kanwar, 1998).
In particular, what new carbohydrates get exposed during the acrosome reaction
and what happens after subsequent sperm-egg binding?
One possible hypothesis for this effect was the triggering of a premature acrosome reaction
in sperms before they underwent full capacitation and maturation (31).
and viability were measured by a modified triple-stain technique described by Didion and Graves (1986).