sup] It is acknowledged that inflammation plays a major role in rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.
17) Similar results were reported in pediatric patients in which up to two-thirds of the AKI defined by oliguria criteria would have been missed using serum creatinine alone--yet these patients had significantly higher mortality than patients without AKI.
Supporting this hypothesis is the finding that all the patients presented with very mild lactate elevation (a marker of anaerobic metabolism), with no difference between patients with or without AKI.
The results of studies have shown higher mortality rates even in milder forms of AKI.
There remains much debate about when to start AKI therapy, what therapy to use and the target dose, so the final section embraces this by analysing the available research and CPGs, alerting the reader to findings of ongoing research and future clinical targets for AKI.
It is important to mention that serum creatinine changes are slowly following the onset of AKI.
Our hypothesis is based on the evidence that medullary hypoxia is a critical initiating event in the development of multiple forms of AKI.
i) Plasma creatinine increase found in Group A and Group B patients with diagnosis of AKI.
Serum creatinine is the most widely employed marker of AKI.
It is a small protein that is easily excreted by the kidneys, and appears in the urine within 2 hours of AKI.
Furthermore, a significant number of the noncontrast studies were head CT examinations (87%), suggesting that the disease processes for which the two groups presented to hospital may be different, with the ICM group being more likely to have systemic, rather than neurological, symptoms and therefore more likely to develop AKI.
Yet their subsequent mortality within 30 days was twice as high as that for patients who didn't have any AKI.
Results: Out of 93 patients undergoing CPB surgery, 12 (13%) developed AKI.
Generalized equations were fitted to estimate risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for AKI.
Therefore, irrespective of the patients' SCr, an improvement after admission was not considered as AKI.